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Tuesday, April 3, 2012

Supreme Court : Article 21-A (Right To Elementary Education )

Supreme Court : Article 21-A (Right To Elementary Education )

The power  of the Supreme Court of India to enforce these fundamental rights is derived from Article 32 of the Constitution. It gives citizens the right to directly approach the Supreme Court for seeking remedies against the violation of these fundamental rights.
This entitlement to constitutional remedies is itself a fundamental right and can be enforced in the form of  writs evolved in common law – such as habeas corpus (to direct the release of a person detained unlawfully), mandamus (to direct a public authority to do its duty),  quo warranto (to
direct a person to vacate an office assumed wrongfully),  prohibition (to prohibit a lower court from proceeding on a case) and certiorari (power of the higher court to remove a proceeding from a lower court and bring it before itself). Besides the Supreme Court, the High Courts located in the
various States are also designated  as constitutional courts and Article 226 permits citizens to file similar writs before the High Courts. 

With the advent of Public Interest Litigation (PIL) in recent decades, Article 32 has been creatively interpreted to shape innovative remedies such as a ‘continuing mandamus’ for ensuring that executive  agencies comply with judicial directions. In this category of litigation, judges have also imported private law remedies such as ‘injunctions’ and ‘stay orders’ into what are essentially public law-related matters.

Successful challenges against statutory provisions result in reliefs such as the striking down of
statutes or even reading down of statutes, the latter implying that courts reject a particular approach to the  interpretation of a statutory provision rather than rejecting the provision in its entirety

The court has also recognized access to free education as a justiciable right. This decision prompted a Constitutional amendment which inserted Article 21-A into the Constitutional text, thereby guaranteeing the right to elementary education for children aged between 6-14 years. The Courts have
also pointed to Directive principles in interpreting the  prohibitions against forced labour and child labour. The enforcement of these rights leaves a lot to be desired, but the symbolic value of their constitutional status should not be underestimated


Source : http://www.supremecourtofindia.nic.in/speeches/speeches_2009/judicial_activism_tcd_dublin_14-10-09.pdf
*****************
THE CONSTITUTION (EIGHTY-SIXTH AMENDMENT) ACT, 2002
[12th December, 2002.]

2. Insertion of new article 21A.- After article 21 of the Constitution, the following article shall be inserted, namely:-
Right to education.-
 "21A. The State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of six to fourteen years in such
manner as the State may, by law, determine.".

Source : http://indiacode.nic.in/coiweb/amend/amend86.htm

39 comments:

  1. SARKAR SHIKSHA MAFIYA KE DABAW MEIN HAI.

    ISI LIYE TET KO RADDKAR ACADEMIC BHARTI CHAHTI HAI.

    TAKI UNKI SHIKSHA KI DUKANE CHALTI RAHEN.

    ReplyDelete
  2. SARKAR SHIKSHA MAFIYA KE DABAW MEIN HAI.

    ISI LIYE TET KO RADDKAR ACADEMIC BHARTI CHAHTI HAI.

    TAKI UNKI SHIKSHA KI DUKANE CHALTI RAHEN.

    ReplyDelete
  3. Akilesh ji educated person hain, unse ye ummid nhi thi ki wo acadmic(nakal) ko importance denge

    ReplyDelete
  4. Please any body tell me...
    Kya shiksha mitro ko bhi training ke baad TET qualify karna hoga?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Please wait till new govt. order
      I think tet is complesory for anybody who will be a teacher.

      Delete
  5. सरकार को U P BOARD को ही समाप्त कर देना चाहिए
    और केवल सम्पूर्णानंद UNI. को ही मान्यता देँ ताकि सभी को घर बैठे ही high percentage marksheet प्राप्त हो जाये....
    what's ur comment please reply me.

    ReplyDelete
  6. @ ¥ AMIT SINGH ¥ ,
    Yes, TET is Must to become teacher for class -I to VIII
    Please see NCTE guidelines

    ReplyDelete
  7. can take it Seriously.
    कृपया ध्यान रखें: अपनी राय देते समय
    अभद्र शब्द या भाषा का प्रयोग न करें।
    अभद्र शब्दों या भाषा का इस्तेमाल
    आपको इस साइट पर राय देने से
    प्रतिबंधित किए जाने का कारण बन
    सकता है। टिप्पणी लेखक का व्यक्तिगत
    विचार है और इसका संपादकीय नीति से
    कोई संबंध नहीं है। प्रासंगिक
    टिप्पणियां प्रकाशित की जाएंगी।
    Create a Link
    8 comments:
    sunil kumar Apr 3, 2012 08:21
    AM
    SARKAR SHIKSHA MAFIYA KE
    DABAW MEIN HAI.
    ISI LIYE TET KO RADDKAR
    ACADEMIC BHARTI CHAHTI HAI.
    TAKI UNKI SHIKSHA KI DUKANE
    CHALTI RAHEN.
    Reply
    sunil kumar Apr 3, 2012 08:23
    AM
    SARKAR SHIKSHA MAFIYA KE
    DABAW MEIN HAI.
    ISI LIYE TET KO RADDKAR
    ACADEMIC BHARTI CHAHTI HAI.
    TAKI UNKI SHIKSHA KI DUKANE
    CHALTI RAHEN.
    Reply
    Rashid Apr 3, 2012 08:29 AM
    Akilesh ji educated person hain,
    unse ye ummid nhi thi ki wo
    acadmic(nakal) ko importance
    denge
    Reply
    ¥ AMIT SINGH ¥ Apr 3, 2012
    08:30 AM
    Please any body tell me...
    Kya shiksha mitro ko bhi
    training ke baad TET qualify
    karna hoga?
    Reply
    Amit kashyap Apr 3,
    2012 08:43 AM
    Please wait till new govt.
    order
    I think tet is complesory
    for anybody who will be
    a teacher.
    Amit kashyap Apr 3, 2012
    08:35 AM
    सरकार को U P BOARD को ही समाप्त
    कर देना चाहिए
    और केवल सम्पूर्णानंद UNI.
    को ही मान्यता देँ ताकि सभी को घर बैठे
    ही high percentage marksheet
    प्राप्त हो जाये....
    what's ur comment please reply
    me.
    Reply
    Blog Editor Apr 3, 2012
    08:38 AM
    @ ¥ AMIT SINGH ¥ ,
    Yes, TET is Must to become
    teacher for class -I to VIII
    Please see NCTE guidelines
    Reply
    baruta Apr 3, 2012 08:43 AM
    tet nirast hokar rahegi..abki
    hume phir se chance dena
    chahiye
    Reply

    ReplyDelete
  8. टिप्पणी लेखक का व्यक्तिगत
    विचार है

    ReplyDelete
  9. There is a very big game playing by goverment.yanha niyamavali badalne ke karan case court me jana taye hai.court ke dicision ke vina koi bhi nae barthy bhi nahi ho sakti aur upper se ncte ka davao teacher bharti ke liye.mujhe aisa lagta hai ki sapa apne menifesto me kiye gaye promish ki shishamitro ko regular teacher karne ka faisla emergency me le sakti hai.its my only thought that i fear.

    ReplyDelete
  10. Public Interest Litigation
    Remedies - Public Interest
    Litigation (PIL) - Part: 1
    We briefly dealt with Public
    Interest Litigation in the earlier
    Project on "Knowledge of Law
    Essential for Public Servants".
    For your beneift the biref is
    reproduced hereunder:
    A Public Interest Litigation (PIL)
    can be filed in any High Court
    or directly in the Supreme
    Court. It is not necessary that
    the petitioner has suffered
    some injury of his own or has
    had personal grievance to
    litigate. PIL is a right given to
    the socially conscious member
    or a public spirited NGO to
    espouse a public cause by
    seeking judicial for redressal of
    public injury. Such injury may
    arise from breach of public
    duty or due to a violation of
    some provision of the
    Constitution. Public interest
    litigation is the device by
    which public participation in
    judicial review of
    administrative action is
    assured. It has the effect of
    making judicial process little
    more democratic.
    According to the guidelines of
    the Supreme Court any member
    of public having sufficient
    interest may maintain an
    action or petition by way of
    PIL provided: -
    » There is a personal injury or
    injury to a disadvantaged
    section of the population for
    whom access to legal justice
    system is difficult,
    » The person bringing the
    action has sufficient interest to
    maintain an action of public
    injury,
    » The injury must have arisen
    because of breach of public
    duty or violation of the
    Constitution or of the law,
    It must seek enforcement of
    such public duty and
    observance of the
    constitutional law or legal
    provisions.
    » This is a powerful safeguard
    and has provided immense
    social benefits, where there is
    essentially failure on the part
    of the execute to ameliorate
    the problems of the oppressed
    citizens. Considering the
    importance of ths subject,
    three articles from the web on
    the subject are reproduced
    hereunder.
    Introduction
    The Emergency of 1976
    marked not just a political
    watershed in this country, but
    a judicial one as well. In the
    euphoria of the return to
    democracy and in an attempt
    to refurbish its image that had
    been tarnished by some
    Emergency decisions, the
    Supreme Court of India opened
    the floodgates to public
    interest litigation (PIL). under
    PIL, courts take up cases that
    concern not the rights of the
    petitioner but of the public at
    large. In the last two decades,
    PIL has emerged as one of the
    most powerful tools for
    promoting social justice and
    for protecting the rights of the
    poor.
    Among the numerous
    factors that have
    contributed to the growth
    of PIL in this country, the
    following deserve special
    mention:
    » The character of the Indian
    Constitution. Unlike Britain,
    India has a written
    constitution which through
    Part III (Fundamental Rights)
    and Part IV (Directive Principles
    of State Policy) provides a
    framework for regulating
    relations between the state
    and its citizens and between
    citizens inter-se.
    » India has some of the most
    progressive social legislation to
    be found anywhere in the
    world whether it be relating to
    bonded labor, minimum wages,
    land ceiling, environmental
    protection, etc. This has made it
    easier for the courts to haul up
    the executive when it is not
    performing its duties in
    ensuring the rights of the poor
    as per the law of the land.
    »

    ReplyDelete
  11. These days i saw that shichamitra are very happy and glad.i dont know why.or something they know good about thier future.

    ReplyDelete
  12. @Rahul jee,
    TET can't violated.

    But haan niyam badalkar naklee koshish ho saktee hai, kyonkee log court mein jayenge.

    Aur fir bhrtee latak jayengee.

    PIL in Supreme Court / Highcourt can be filed.
    Best in Supreme Court, How much expenditure incurred that I don't know.
    --------
    Lekin wait for Govt. stand on TET issue as per asuurance to decide in meeting this week.

    ReplyDelete
  13. Mujhe Lagta Hai,

    Kee Jab TET ka mamla court mein hai, Tab tak Niyam nahin badala ja sakta,

    Kyonkee Niyam Badalne ka matlab hee hai -> Vigyapan Radd

    Decision Sarkar ko nahin dena , court ko dena hai. Haan sarkar kaise is case ko handle kartee hai , kya tathya detee hai.
    In sabhee par nirbhar hai vigyapan ka fesla.

    ReplyDelete
  14. Koee Baruta kee Naam Rakh kar comment de raha hai, Kal jab uskee profile dekhee thee to uskee 200 se jyada profile views hueee thee.

    Par is Baruta kee - 105 baar.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Koee mera Naam Rakh kar
      comment de raha hai, Kal jab
      uskee profile dekhee thee to
      uskee 200 se jyada profile views
      hueee thee.
      Par is Baruta kee - 105 baar.
      Main orginal baruta hu aur 200 wala fake baruta hai

      Delete
  15. Muskan ji i just wants to know that can goverment fill up these vacency by sichamitra.please reply mam.

    ReplyDelete
  16. @BARUTA,

    AUR SABHI KA VICHAR TO VAKTIGAT HAI

    BUT BARUTA KI TIPPADI SARKARI HAI.

    ReplyDelete
  17. aur rahi hamari ekta ki baat to hum woh kitni majboot hai ki hum aaj tak court mein ek yachika bhi nahi dal payeen hai. allahabad aur lucknow ke applicant ka yeh dayitva tha kyounki highcourt bhi wahin hai. kuldeep yadab ne bhi kya chanda lagakar yachika dali thi?

    ReplyDelete
  18. Mai etna toh janta hoo ki case hum logo ke jitne ke 100 parcents chance hai.par usme time lag sakta hai.lekin hamare garwalo ki ummide hum logo se etni hai ki hum aur time nahi le sakte.mujhe etna toh pata hai ki jinhone tet pass kiya umhone vakae me bahut mehnat ki aur etna bhi pata hai en sabhi tet pass student mansik roop se etne majboot ho gaye hai ki ye sabhi kahi na kahi achi job pa jayege.

    ReplyDelete
  19. agar pil daalni hai to jahan highcourt hain wahan ke candidate dal sakte hain allahabad aur lucknow ke nahi tet andolan ki to acchi kashi beizzati ho chuki hai iska netratva labar sabar logon ke haath mein hai pahle to sachiv se bhi baat karne se inkar aur phir sdm ke kehne bhar se woh bhi yeh ki akhilesh se bhent karwa denge jabki abhi bped aur anya bin kisi rukawat ke cm se mill ke aayen hai aur yahan cm se milne ke liye bhi anshan karna pada aur mamla tayn tayn fisssss.........

    ReplyDelete
  20. ADITYA FAIZABAD,FUDAMAENTEL RIGHT (mool addhikar) to hamare samvidhan me diya hai.lekin hamare desh me uska implementation khaha theek se hota hai.politician ke aage to court ko bhi kai bar sakht comment dene padtey hai.

    ReplyDelete
  21. muskan g is samay sabhi titian apas mai bacho ki tarah lad rahe hai har koi acd ki bat kar raha hai jab sabko pata hai ki bgair tet ke koi job nahi milani hai to ye bar 2 acd pe discus q ho raha hai aur han jab bhi bharti hoga tet ki merit se hi hoga ya isme h+i+g+b.ed+tet ki merit jodi jaigi dusra koi vikalp nahi hai phir sab logo ko ek sur ye mang karni chahiae ki graduate+b.ed.+tet ki merit bane

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. ME APSE SAHMAT HU TET MORCHA SE MEETING ME YADI CM TET MERIT PAR AGREE NAHI HOTE TO YAH BICH KA RASTA NIKALA JA SAKTA HAI YAH SABHI TET CANDIDATES KE LIYE ACHHA HAI AUR UP BOARD WALO KA AHIT NAHI HOGA

      Delete
  22. टिप्पणी लेखक का व्यक्तिगत
    विचार है और इसका संपादकीय नीति से
    कोई संबंध नहीं है।

    ReplyDelete
  23. please visit www.onlytetmerit.blogspot.com

    ReplyDelete
  24. Important Link-

    http://epaper.amarujala.com/svww_zoomart.php?Artname=20120404a_005163008&ileft=-5&itop=865&zoomRatio=130&AN=20120404a_005163008

    ReplyDelete
  25. tu tulsi tet ke aangan ki
    tet nirast hone wala hai

    ReplyDelete
  26. is liye bolta hoon merit par mat lado.

    TET ke liye lado

    TET & ACD ek dusere par aarop mat lagao ki ye acha hai to ye hacha hai.

    Patachala chala ladte rahin hum khir khaye koi our

    So pahele TET bacho

    ReplyDelete
  27. HELLO FRIENDS!
    MAIN PICHLE 4 MONTH SE IS BLOG PER VISIT KAR RAHA HOON.MAIN NE 1995 MEIN B.Ed. KIYA THA US SAMAY LOG B.Ed. KI TARAF KAM HI DHYAN DIYA KARTE THE.US SAMAY B.U. UNIVERSITY MEIN ONLY 800 SEATS THI JO 5 COLLEGE ME BANTI THI.US SAMAY 800 ME SE KEWAL 589 HI PASS HUYE THE .JISME 102 FIRST 203 SECOND BAKI THIRD .US DAURAN % BHI KAFI KAM RAHTI THI. 1998 MAIN 1ST TIME RAVINDRA SHUKLA BASIC SHIKHA MANTRI NE PRIMARY ME 3500 B Ed WALO KO NAUKRI DE.USKE BAD SE BHRTI PRAKRIYA HAMESA HI VIVAD GRIST RAHI.HER BHARTI PRAKRIYA ME NIYAM BADLE GAYE. KABHI 3 KA GUDANK, KABHI 4 KA GUDANK ,KABHI DISTRICT LEVEL KI MERIT,KABHI STATE LEVEL KI MARIT, KABHI AGE MATTER, KABHI % KO LEKAR VIVAD. HER BAR MERE JAISE VARISTHA B.Ed.BALE BAHAR HOTE GAYE.LEKIN GOVT.CHAHE WAH BJP HO,SP HO,BSP HO KESE NE BHI BASIC SHIKHA KE NIYAM KA PALAN NAHI KIYA.SAB CHOR HE.PICHLE 12 BERSH HUM LOG CASE LADTE AA RAHE HAIN.AJ BHI CASE NO.57595 /2007 HC ALLAHABAD ME PENDING HE.PURE CASE KE 3 BAR SUNBAI HO CHUKI HE LAKIN KISE BHI JUDGE NE JUDGEMENT NAHI DIYA.SAB GOVT. KE DABAB ME KAM KER RAHE HAIN.AJ JAB KI TET ME MERE 120 MARKS.(ACD WEEK HE)KAYON KI US SAMAY (1985 -1998)UP BOARD KI KYA POSITION THI YE KISE SE CHUPA NAHI HE.AJ JB KI MERE JAISE KAI B.Ed.WALE BHAIYO KA YE AKHRI CHANCE (DUE TO OVER AGE ).AB YE MAMLA LATAK GAYA.

    ReplyDelete
  28. AB TET MARIT WALE KAHTE HAI KI BHARTI TET MERIT SE HO ACD WALE KAHTE HI KI BHARTI ACD SE HO MERE JAISE SENIOR KAHTE HI KI BHARTI VRISTHA SE HO.MERE FRIENDS KE PAS CASE NO. 57595/2007 KI SERTIFIED PURI COPY HI.ABHI MANE BLOG EDITOR KA COMMENTS PDA KI JAB TAK KOI MATTER COURT ME HI GOVT. BHARTI RULING ME CHANGE NAHI KER SAKTI TO FIR GOVT. NE RULING KAISE CHANGE KER DE.JAB KI CASE NO. 57595/2007 ME HUM LOGO NE BASIC SHIKHA KE BHRTI RULE KO CHALLENGE KIYA HE.

    ReplyDelete
  29. AP LOGO KO SHAYAD MALOOM HO 2003 ME BASIC SHIKHA ADHIKARION NE EK ADVER. NIKALA THA (ONLY)BTC CANDIDATES KE LIYE LAKIN USME B.Ed. WALO NE BHI AVEDAN KIYA THA.PURWANCHAL UP KE 1 ADHIKARI NE BED WALO KO HC KE ORDER PER NEYUKTI DE DEE. HC KAHA THA KI AGAR BTC WALE MUJOOD NA HO TO BED WALO KO NIYUKTI DI JA SAKATI HI IS ORDER PER ADIKARI NE NIYUKTI DE DE THI. BAD ME WAH ADHIKARI SUSPEND HO GAYA THA.LAKIN HC NE WAH NEYUKTI WAHAL KAR DE .AUR AB SC (DUBBLE BEN) NE BHI US PER APNI MUHAR LAGA DE.

    ReplyDelete
  30. MAINE KAI LOGO SE SALAH LE AUR PAYA KI KOI AESA TARIKA HO JISME SABHI LOGO KA BHLA HO CHAHE WAH ACD WALE HO, CHAHE TET MERIT WALE, CHAHE WAH SENIORS HO.

    ReplyDelete

Please do not use abusive/gali comment to hurt anybody OR to any authority. You can use moderated way to express your openion/anger. Express your views Intelligenly, So that Other can take it Seriously.
कृपया ध्यान रखें: अपनी राय देते समय अभद्र शब्द या भाषा का प्रयोग न करें। अभद्र शब्दों या भाषा का इस्तेमाल आपको इस साइट पर राय देने से प्रतिबंधित किए जाने का कारण बन सकता है। टिप्पणी लेखक का व्यक्तिगत विचार है और इसका संपादकीय नीति से कोई संबंध नहीं है। प्रासंगिक टिप्पणियां प्रकाशित की जाएंगी।